Publications - peer-reviewed

  1. Smeaton, C., Yang, H and Austin, W.E.N.,  2021. Carbon burial in the mid-latitude fjords of Scotland, Marine Geology, 411,

  2. Smeaton, C., Cui, X., Bianchi, T.S., Cage, A.G., Howe, J.A. and Austin, W.E., 2021. The evolution of a coastal carbon store over the last millennium. Quaternary Science Reviews, 266, p.107081.

  3. Audsley, A., Bradwell, T., Howe, J. and Baxter, J., 2021. Spatial Relationships between Pockmarks and Sub-Seabed Gas in Fjordic Settings: Evidence from Loch Linnhe, West Scotland. Geosciences, 11(7), p.283.

  4. Smeaton, C., Hunt, C.A., Turrell, W.R. and Austin, W.E., 2021. Marine Sedimentary Carbon Stocks of the United Kingdom’s Exclusive Economic Zone. Frontiers in Earth Science, 9, p.50.

  5. Lee, H.Z., Davies, I.M., Baxter, J.M., Diele, K. and Sanderson, W.G., 2020. Missing the full story: First estimates of carbon deposition rates for the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 30(11), pp.2076-2086.

  6. Mao. J., Burdett. H.L., McGill. R.A.R., Newton.J,  Gulliver.P., Kamenos.NA., 2020. Carbon burial over the last four millennia is regulated by both climatic and land use change. Global Change Biology.  doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.15021

  7. ​Hunt, C.A., Demsar, U., Dove, D., Smeaton, C., Cooper, R. and Austin, W., 2020. Quantifying Marine Sedimentary Carbon: a new spatial analysis approach using seafloor acoustics, imagery, and ground-truthing data in Scotland. Frontiers in Marine Science.

  8. Bianchi, T, Arndt, S, Austin, W, Benn, DI, Bertrand, S, Cui, X, Faust, J, Koziorowska-Makuch, K, Moy, C, Savage, C, Smeaton, C, Smith, R & Syvitski, J 2020, 'Fjords as Aquatic Critical Zones (ACZs)', Earth Science Reviews, vol. In press, 103145.

  9. Smeaton, C., Barlow, N.L. and Austin W.E.N., 2020. Coring and compaction: Best practice in blue carbon stock and burial estimations. Geoderma, 364.

  10. ​Turrell, W.R., 2019. Marine science within a net-zero emission statutory framework. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 76(7), pp.1983-1993. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsz164

  11. Burden, A., Smeaton, C., Angus, S. Garbutt, R. A., Jones, L., Lewis, H.D., Rees, S.M., 2020,Impacts of climate change on Coastal Habitats, relevant to the coastal and marine environment around the UK, Marine Climate Change Impact Partnership Science Review. doi: 10.14465/2020.arc11.chb

  12. Lo Giudice Cappelli, E., Clarke, J., Smeaton, C., Davidson, K. and Austin, W.E.N., 2019. Organic carbon rich sediments: benthic foraminifera as bio-indicators of depositional environments. Biogeosciences. doi: 10.5194/bg-16-4183-2019

  13. Smeaton C and Austin WEN, 2019. Where’s the Carbon: Exploring the Spatial Heterogeneity of Sedimentary Carbon  in Mid-Latitude Fjords. Front. Earth Sci. 7:269. doi: 10.3389/feart.2019.0026

  14. ​Audsley, A., Bradwell, T., Howe, J.A. and Baxter, J.M., 2019. Distribution and classification of pockmarks on the seabed around western Scotland. Journal of Maps, 15(2), pp.807-817. doi: 10.1080/17445647.2019.167632

  15. ​Marley, A.R., Smeaton, C. and Austin, W.E., An Assessment of the Tea Bag Index Method as a Proxy for Organic Matter Decomposition in Intertidal Environments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. doi: 10.1029/2018JG004957

  16. Taylor, B.W., Paterson, D.M. and Baxter, J.M., 2019. Sediment dynamics of natural and restored Bolboschoenus maritimus saltmarsh. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, p.237. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.0023

  17. ​Smeaton, C. and Austin, W.E., 2017. Sources, Sinks, and Subsidies: Terrestrial Carbon Storage in Mid‐latitude Fjords. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 122(11), pp.2754-2768, doi: 10.1002/2017JG003952

  18. Smeaton, C., Austin, W.E., Davies, A., Baltzer, A., Howe, J.A. and Baxter, J.M., 2017. Scotland's forgotten carbon: a national assessment of mid-latitude fjord sedimentary stocks. Biogeosciences. doi: 10.5194/bg-14-5663-2017, 2017

  19. Smeaton, C., Austin, W., Davies, A., Baltzar, A., Abell, R.E. and Howe, J.A., 2016. Substantial stores of sedimentary carbon held in mid-latitude fjords. Biogeosciences. doi: 10.5194/bg-13-5771-2016


  1. Austin, W., Smeaton., C., Riegel, S., Ruranska, P and Miller, C. 2021. Blue carbon stock in Scottish saltmarsh soils, Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 12 No 13.  doi: 10.7489/12372-1

  2. Smeaton, C., Austin, W. and Turrell, W.R. 2020. Re-Evaluating Scotland’s Sedimentary Carbon Stocks. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 11 No 2, 16pp. doi: 10.7489/12267-1

  3. Turrell, W.R (2020). A Compendium of Marine Related Carbon Stores, Sequestrations and Emissions. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 11 No 1, 70pp. doi: 10.7489/12261-1

  4. ​Porter, J.S., Austin, W.E.N., Burrows, M.T., D Clarke, D., Davies, G., Kamenos, N., Riegel, S., Smeaton, C., Page, C.,  Want. A., 2020. Blue carbon audit of Orkney waters. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 11 No 3, 96pp. DOI: 10.7489/12262-1.  The full report can be accessed here: doi: 10.7489/12262-1 

Data products

  1. Smeaton, C., Miller, L.C.,  Ruranska, P and Austin, W.E.N, 2021, Organic carbon density of surficial soils across Scottish saltmarshes, Marine Scotland Data.  doi: 10.7489/12389-1

  2. Smeaton, C., Hunt, C.A., Turrell, W.R. and Austin, W.E.N. 2021. Sediment type and surficial sedimentary carbon stocks across the United Kingdom’s Exclusive Economic Zone and the territorial waters of the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. doi: 10.7489/12354-1

  3. Smeaton, C., Hunt, C.A., Turrell, W.R. and Austin, W.E.N. 2021. Organic and inorganic carbon content of surficial sediments within Scottish adjacent waters. doi: 10.7489/12353-1

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